Diet for diabetes

Diabetes mellitus is a disorder of carbohydrate metabolism. Its essence lies in the fact that the body cannot properly absorb glucose. The disease is divided into two types.

In type 1 diabetes, the abnormal cells in the pancreas do not produce enough insulin to keep blood sugar levels stable.

Type 2 diabetes accounts for about 90% of all diagnosed cases of the disease. It occurs when the produced insulin is not perceived by the body, i. e. there is resistance to it.

Diet for diabetes

Diet guidelines for diabetes

The main principle of the diet for diabetes is not to reduce the amount of any type of food, but to correctly rebuild the entire diet and stick to it for the rest of your life.

From the point of view of biology, food is a source of vital vitamins, trace elements and necessary energy.

With diagnosed diabetes, they seek to reduce the amount of this energy that a person receives from food. Excessive amount of it is the cause of excess weight, which only worsens the course of the disease.

The main components of the diet for diabetes are fats, proteins and carbohydrates. Carbohydrates are the main source of energy used by the body. Their share is about 50% of the daily intake of food consumed.

There are three groups of carbohydrates:

  1. The ones that don't need to be counted. These are foods enriched with vegetable fiber (the exception is legumes and potatoes due to their high starch content).
  2. Slow-digesting carbohydrates (cereals, fruits, vegetables).
  3. Fast digestibility carbohydrates (sweets of all kinds).

To calculate the dosage of insulin, the amount of carbohydrates consumed is taken into account according to the "bread units" system. One bread unit (XE) equals 10-12 g of carbohydrates. Entire tables have been created to help accurately determine their approximate content in a particular type of food.

The required number of bread units is determined by the weight of the person and the degree of his physical activity. Approximately this number is equal to - 15-30 XE per day.

Using the XE table, adjusting blood glucose levels before and after meals, you can calculate the required insulin dosage, which controls sugar levels and the process of carbohydrate metabolism itself. If tabular data is not at hand, the "rule of hand and plate" is applied, when the size of the consumed products is determined based on the size of the hand and plate.

Another indicator that plays an important role in the organization of diabetic nutrition is the glycemic index (GI). It helps control carbohydrate metabolism and determines the most favorable nutritional option. It was first introduced by Canadian specialist A. Jenkinson in the early 80s of the XX century.

The GI of glucose itself is 100 units. The sooner its level rises after eating food, the higher the index. GI - an indicator of the degree of usefulness of the product. Its low value indicates that the product is recommended for people with diabetes. A high GI value indicates useless calories. Low GI foods slowly increase blood glucose levels. And with a high, on the contrary, it quickly increases glycemia. The first group includes vegetables, fresh fruits, whole grain bread, seafood, eggs, etc. The second group includes muffins, sweets, soda, packaged juices, etc. Awareness of the main criteria for a diabetic diet allows you to regulate the course of the disease, improve the quality of life of suchpatients.

Features of the diet for diabetes

Diet should support optimal body weight in diabetic patients

Patient studies have proven that strict adherence to a diet and approved nutritional patterns are essential for the successful treatment of diabetes mellitus, minimizing possible complications, and maintaining good health.

For people with diabetes, it is necessary to observe a number of features that regulate the diet, regardless of the severity of the disease and the methods of its treatment.

A person must be aware that no matter what treatment is chosen for him, his success will primarily depend on the culture of nutrition.

The nutrition scheme is selected for each patient individually, depending on the weight, age, degree of daily physical activity.

The goal of the diabetes diet is to control glucose levels and maintain them at an optimal level, according to generally accepted norms. It is important that the diet is balanced and enriched with a number of vitamins and minerals. It is obliged to ensure the supply of the necessary energy so that the patient's body weight is close to ideal indicators and remains stable for a long time. The diet must comply with the principles of rational nutrition.

Diet for type 1 diabetes

Low GI Foods Help Maintain Normal Blood Sugar Levels in Type 1 Diabetes

Experts in the field of nutrition are unanimous in their opinion that the diet plan for type 1 diabetes must be balanced and based on the postulates of proper nutrition, as well as for those who do not suffer from this disease. Since there is no ideal diet for diabetics, such patients must pay close attention to the ratio of carbohydrates, fats and proteins that enter the body. This will help you adjust your diet. A diabetic diet does not mean the complete exclusion of certain foods, but you should consider how one or another product affects blood glucose.

Recommendations for the amount of food consumed look like this:

  • reduce the amount of packaged juices and drinks that increase glucose levels. Low-sugar drinks and special diet fluids are recommended for consumption;
  • You can't completely eliminate carbohydrates from your diet. Their absence, in combination with insulin treatment, can significantly reduce sugar levels, which will negatively affect overall health;
  • eat as many low GI vegetables as possible;
  • reduce the amount of fast food and fast food consumed.

A large proportion of patients diagnosed with type 1 diabetes report the effectiveness of a low GI diet. This helps to avoid sudden fluctuations in blood sugar after a meal.

When planning, an important aspect is the calculation of the amount of carbohydrates. He pays special attention to diabetics who responsibly approach their nutrition. With the right calculations, you can find out exactly what dosage insulin should have, as well as get relief when choosing the desired products.

Another popular method of insulin therapy is basal bolus.

It consists of taking a bolus immediately before a meal to regulate the optimal level of glucose within acceptable limits. Such a diet provides increased flexibility in choosing a diet, allows you to independently adjust the required dosage of insulin, depending on the amount of carbohydrates consumed.

Diet for type 2 diabetes

Diet for type 2 diabetes should include plenty of vegetables

Compliance with a healthy diet aimed at reducing body weight is the main requirement. Excess weight has a significant impact on the course of the disease and the development of insulin dependence. In order for the fight against excess weight to be successful, you must follow all the recommendations.

The diet for type 2 diabetes has three main principles:

  1. The use of vegetables.Their number is determined by the patient's age, gender and physical activity. Women who exercise for 30 minutes should include about 500 g of such products in their diet. If sports are more intense, the amount of vegetables increases to 800 g. Accordingly, men should consume 600 and 1000 g.
  2. unsaturated fats.Their presence in the grocery basket helps regulate cholesterol levels and minimizes the likelihood of developing diseases of the cardiovascular system, which are integral companions of diabetes. Such fats are found in nuts, mackerel, tuna, avocados, olive oil, etc.
  3. Exclusion of processed food.Refusal of it favorably affects the health of diabetics, which has been repeatedly confirmed by doctors. As a rule, such food can be stored for a long time, thanks to special additives. It has a high GI. Its constant use negatively affects the general condition of the body of patients with diabetes.

As with type 1 diabetes, people with type 2 are advised to follow a low-carbohydrate diet and include low-GI foods in their diet. This will help reduce spikes in blood glucose. To determine how well the diet is composed, it is necessary to constantly monitor the numerical value of sugar before and after meals. The data obtained will show how the body responds to the selected diet. If the efforts made do not give positive results, it is worth considering the introduction of special antidiabetic drugs.

People with type 2 diabetes also should not bypass the basal-bolus diet. It will keep your glucose levels at an optimal level and improve overall health.

Allowed and prohibited foods on a diet for diabetes

Vegetables contain fiber and slow carbohydrates that can reduce the risk of glycemia

Carbohydrates are one of the main sources of fat. People with diabetes need to use them with caution, but it is not recommended to completely exclude them from the diet, since all food components are important for the normal functioning of human organ systems. Nutritionists advise reducing the amount of fast carbohydrates and increasing the amount of slow ones.

Fast carbohydrates are found in foods such as:

  • pastries and sweets;
  • pasta;
  • potato;
  • fast food;
  • starch.

Vegetables and other foods of plant origin are rich in slow foods. It is she who will improve health.

The diet menu for diabetes should include:

  • various types of cabbage (brussels white broccoli);
  • seaweed;
  • tomatoes;
  • green and onion;
  • string beans;
  • mushrooms;
  • cucumbers and celery;
  • eggplant, etc.

Garlic, beets, nuts, fish, avocados, etc. will help lower blood glucose levels. The list of allowed foods on the diet is quite extensive. They are characterized by low GI, high content of healthy fiber, which helps to reduce the risk of glycemia. Thanks to their action, glucose enters the blood in minimal quantities, and the presence of a large number of vitamins and trace elements will help normalize the work of all vital body systems.

The list of prohibited foods on a diet for diabetes is as follows:

  • any confectionery, white flour muffins;
  • honey;
  • various pickles and freshly made juices;
  • condensed milk;
  • canned products;
  • syrups;
  • fatty meat and fish;
  • potatoes, rice;
  • foods high in trans fats;
  • semi-finished products.

Sweeteners for diabetes

Sweeteners - supplements for diabetics

For people with diabetes, there is an alternative that allows you to replace regular sugar with special supplements. They are divided into two categories: those that take part in the exchange processes and those that do not.

The most popular sweetener is fructose. It is produced by processing fruits. Unlike regular sugar, it is much sweeter and has a low GI. Its use does not entail jumps in blood glucose levels. Natural substitutes also include sorbitol (found in apples, rowan berries and other fruits), erythritol ("melon sugar"), stevia (obtained by processing a plant with the same name).

Industrial sweeteners include sucralose, aspartame, saccharin, cyclamate, etc. The market for such additives is represented mainly by products of artificial origin.

Contraindications for diabetes

In diabetes, you need to adjust the dosage of insulin depending on the amount of carbohydrates consumed.

The main contraindication for diabetes mellitus of any type is the strict restriction of carbohydrates consumed, which have an extremely negative effect on the level of glucose in human blood. It is forbidden to eat sweets, ice cream, drink sugar-containing drinks. Under control is the use of bakery products, honey. If glucose levels are high, exercise should be limited. Under the ban are alcoholic and low-alcohol drinks, which also cause glycemia, which is fraught with fainting, increased sweating and weakness. Patients with problems with the organs of vision should refrain from visiting the bath and sauna. High temperatures provoke bursting of small blood vessels.

Diabetes is a serious disease that should not be taken lightly.

Diet for diabetes: menu for the week

Oatmeal on the water and scrambled eggs - an excellent breakfast for diabetes

Various menus have been developed for diabetics. One of the most common diet options for diabetes is menu number 9.

The simplest diet for a week might look like this:

  1. Breakfast- an omelet with asparagus or buckwheat porridge, oatmeal on the water, black tea.
  2. Dinner- beans, beetroot, pickle, stew of allowed vegetables, eggplant, raw carrot salad, apple.
  3. afternoon tea- rye bread, cottage cheese, kefir.
  4. Dinner- stewed mushrooms, baked salmon fillet or boiled fish, stewed cabbage.

Less salt is recommended for cooked food. Doctors advise keeping a special diary where you need to write down everything that was eaten and in what quantity.

Recipes for a diet for diabetes

The list of allowed products includes beans and cottage cheese. On the Internet, you can find a huge number of recipes for a diet for diabetes, which will make the diet varied and interesting.

Bean pate

In the diet menu for diabetes, you can include bean paste

Drain excess liquid from canned beans. Grind the product with a blender until a homogeneous consistency. Finely chop the onion and fry a little until translucent. Grind walnuts. Peel the pomegranate seeds. Mix the bean mass with the rest of the ingredients, salt. Delicious and healthy pate is ready to eat.

Cheesecakes with tomatoes

Cheesecakes with tomatoes in the diet of diabetic patients

In a bowl, mix cottage cheese, egg, add oatmeal flour and spices. Rinse the tomatoes in boiling water, cut into slices. Stir the curd mass until smooth, mold cheesecakes with wet hands and fry them with the addition of olive oil in a frying pan. The dish is served with sour cream.

Diet for diabetes: reviews of nutritionists

Diabetes is a disease that requires a well-designed diet plan

Nutritionists have extensive experience over many years of treating diabetes of any type through the introduction of a strict diet. Despite similar treatment tactics, different diets have their own individual characteristics. The comments of nutritionists are such that for each individual patient an individual nutrition plan for diabetes should be selected. In one opinion, doctors agree - successful treatment of diabetes is impossible without a correct and competent approach to dieting.